What is Pectinase? Uses of Pectinase in the Food Industry

by | Juice Extraction Enzymes For Wine

In layman’s terms, a pectinase enzyme is a group of enzymes that are further used to break down the plant cell walls made of pectin. Now, pectin is found in the middle lamella of the cell walls of a plant. It is an acidic heteropolysaccharide. Pectin is found in other forms as well, namely, protopectin, peptic acid, and pectinic acid. These forms of pectin are present in different plant tissues. Coming back to pectinase, it breaks down the pectin polymer into galacturonic acid and monomer acids. 

Pectinase is diversly used in various industries. For instance, they are used in the fruit juice industry, wine industry,  food products industry, coffee and instant tea industry. When pectinase is in its alkaline form, it is also used in the paper and pulp industry. On a commercial scale, pectinase is also used as a poultry enzyme. 

 

Pectinase: Overview of the microbial enzyme

Enzymes are basically proteins that act as a catalyst during various reactions. Pectinase is a group of enzymes that breaks down the pectin polymer into sugar monomers. This group has various uses across multiple industries. Pectinase can be classified into three categories based on its mode of action on substrate: – 

  • Polygalacturonase – breaks down pectin into smaller fragments through the process of hydrolysis.
  • Pectinesterase – breaks down the polymer of pectin into monomers through the reactionary process of trans-elimination. 
  • Pectin lyase – this form of pectinase breaks down pectin through the reactionary process of de-esterification. 

Polygalacturonase (PG) and polymethyl galacturonase (PMG) are two enzymes that act on α 1→4 glycosidic bonds of polygalacturonic acid and hydrolytic cleavage, respectively. 

Moreover, Pectinase can be easily found in fruits. It acts as a natural catalyst and plays a role in fruit ripening. Pectinase is also found in microorganisms, and this pectinase is used in large scale industries. Now, because microbes have the tendency to multiply themselves, industries produce pectinase through microbes in a controlled process. 

Different types of fungus, yeast and bacteria strains are used to produce pectinase. Pectinase produced by plants has higher activity and is thus more tolerant to alkali, acid and high temperatures. On the other hand, microbes’ produced pectinase has low activity and is less tolerant to high temperatures, acid and alkali.  This is the reason why industries prefer to recombine several microbes to produce pectinase with higher activity. It produces pectinase with higher pH tolerance and temperature ranges. 

 

Industries that use pectinase

Pectinase is characterised by de-esterification and depolymerisation reactions. Pectinase has multiple uses and is widely accepted as a sustainable enzyme. For instance, in the feed industry, pectinase is treated to increase bio-accessibility and improve digestion and nutrition in animals. 

Pectinase is also used in the textile industry. This enzyme is one of the main reasons behind the unprecedented success of the textile industry. Further, pectinase is also used to extract fruit juices from several fruits, namely, apple, grape wine, grapes, raspberries, and strawberries. While fruit juice extraction, pectinase is also used to purify the juices. 

Along with this, the pectinase enzyme is also used in the treatment of wastewater. The use of pectinase enzymes don’t end here. They play a vital role in textile processing and cotton bioscouring. Since the pectinase enzyme has the ability to break down pectin, it is also used in the process of making paper. 

When pectinase is combined with lipases, hemicelluloses, amylases, and cellulases, it is also used as an alternative for caustic soda. Besides this, the pectinase enzyme is also used to ferment tea and coffee and used to extract oil. Lastly, pectinase is also used in the food industry, and its usage is discussed in the later section. 

 

How is pectinase produced? 

Pectinase is a naturally occurring group of similar enzymes. It is present in the fruits of plants and promotes ripening. The other naturally occurring source of pectinase is microbes such as fungus, bacteria and yeast. For commercial purposes, microbes’ produced pectinase is used because it has lower activity and can be controlled by industries. There are various processes that an industry can use to produce pectinase: – 

Solid-state fermentation 

It is a process where pectinase is produced by promoting the growth on a solid surface in the absence of water. Some industries partially use water in solid-state fermentation.  To extract the pectinase enzyme, a specific amount of buffer and water is added. 

Submerged fermentation

Both solid-state fermentation and submerged fermentation can produce equally effective pectinase enzymes. In this process, industries use liquid broth to culture the organisms. Submerged fermentation releases a colossal amount of effluents.

Now that the enzyme is extracted through the process (submerged or solid-state fermentation), it is essential to purify the extracted enzyme to increase its effectiveness.  There are many ways of purification that industries may use depending on their comfortability with the process. Purification can be completed through filtration, ethanol precipitation, ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, or ion-exchange chromatography.

 

Use of pectinase in the food industry 

The use of pectinase enzymes is widespread. As aforementioned, they are used in various industries, but the most prominent use is in the food industry.  Even in the natural state, pectinase found in fruits speeds up the process of ripening. Pectinase enzyme is one of the best catalysts and has multiple uses in the food industry. 

However, pectinase is not used as a single enzyme in the food industry. Instead, it is combined with amylase, like the alpha-amylase enzyme. This combination is used as a purifying agent. Both the food and wine industries use it in the processing of their products. The most extensive use of pectinase is in the processing of apple juice. After the production, apple juice often turns into a turbid plant matter. Using pectinase degrades the gums and helps in the production of clearer juice. 

Apart from this, pectinase is also used to soften fruits and fermentation of coffee and tea. 

 

If you are searching for eco-friendly enzymatic solutions, look no further than Infinita Biotech. We provide solutions for several industries ranging from Brewery, Starch, Wine, Malt, Wastewater Treatment, and Food to Animal Feed. Our extensive expertise in the industry will help every domain associated with us towards success.

Share this post

PECTIN METHYLESTERASE

This enzyme can be utilised for fruit firming and jelly formation.


De-Methylation

Pectin Degradation

Synergestic Action

JUICE EXTRACTION ENZYMES

This enzymes based formulations is useful for higher juice extraction from grapes and for better filtration and clarification.


Multi Enzymes
Complex

Enhances Wine
Flavour

Enhances Wine
Clarity

Related Articles

Role Of Enzymes In Fruit Juice Extraction For Wine

Role Of Enzymes In Fruit Juice Extraction For Wine

The winemaking process involves the use of many enzymes. This is the most natural way of making an alcoholic beverage. Wine gets its taste because of the breakdown process completed by the enzymes. Broadly, these enzymes used to make wine belong to the Enological...

Alpha Amylase Enzyme an Overview

Alpha Amylase Enzyme an Overview

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What is Pectinase? Uses of Pectinase in the Food Industry

by | Juice Extraction Enzymes For Wine

In layman’s terms, a pectinase enzyme is a group of enzymes that are further used to break down the plant cell walls made of pectin. Now, pectin is found in the middle lamella of the cell walls of a plant. It is an acidic heteropolysaccharide. Pectin is found in other forms as well, namely, protopectin, peptic acid, and pectinic acid. These forms of pectin are present in different plant tissues. Coming back to pectinase, it breaks down the pectin polymer into galacturonic acid and monomer acids. 

Pectinase is diversly used in various industries. For instance, they are used in the fruit juice industry, wine industry,  food products industry, coffee and instant tea industry. When pectinase is in its alkaline form, it is also used in the paper and pulp industry. On a commercial scale, pectinase is also used as a poultry enzyme. 

 

Pectinase: Overview of the microbial enzyme

Enzymes are basically proteins that act as a catalyst during various reactions. Pectinase is a group of enzymes that breaks down the pectin polymer into sugar monomers. This group has various uses across multiple industries. Pectinase can be classified into three categories based on its mode of action on substrate: – 

  • Polygalacturonase – breaks down pectin into smaller fragments through the process of hydrolysis.
  • Pectinesterase – breaks down the polymer of pectin into monomers through the reactionary process of trans-elimination. 
  • Pectin lyase – this form of pectinase breaks down pectin through the reactionary process of de-esterification. 

Polygalacturonase (PG) and polymethyl galacturonase (PMG) are two enzymes that act on α 1→4 glycosidic bonds of polygalacturonic acid and hydrolytic cleavage, respectively. 

Moreover, Pectinase can be easily found in fruits. It acts as a natural catalyst and plays a role in fruit ripening. Pectinase is also found in microorganisms, and this pectinase is used in large scale industries. Now, because microbes have the tendency to multiply themselves, industries produce pectinase through microbes in a controlled process. 

Different types of fungus, yeast and bacteria strains are used to produce pectinase. Pectinase produced by plants has higher activity and is thus more tolerant to alkali, acid and high temperatures. On the other hand, microbes’ produced pectinase has low activity and is less tolerant to high temperatures, acid and alkali.  This is the reason why industries prefer to recombine several microbes to produce pectinase with higher activity. It produces pectinase with higher pH tolerance and temperature ranges. 

 

Industries that use pectinase

Pectinase is characterised by de-esterification and depolymerisation reactions. Pectinase has multiple uses and is widely accepted as a sustainable enzyme. For instance, in the feed industry, pectinase is treated to increase bio-accessibility and improve digestion and nutrition in animals. 

Pectinase is also used in the textile industry. This enzyme is one of the main reasons behind the unprecedented success of the textile industry. Further, pectinase is also used to extract fruit juices from several fruits, namely, apple, grape wine, grapes, raspberries, and strawberries. While fruit juice extraction, pectinase is also used to purify the juices. 

Along with this, the pectinase enzyme is also used in the treatment of wastewater. The use of pectinase enzymes don’t end here. They play a vital role in textile processing and cotton bioscouring. Since the pectinase enzyme has the ability to break down pectin, it is also used in the process of making paper. 

When pectinase is combined with lipases, hemicelluloses, amylases, and cellulases, it is also used as an alternative for caustic soda. Besides this, the pectinase enzyme is also used to ferment tea and coffee and used to extract oil. Lastly, pectinase is also used in the food industry, and its usage is discussed in the later section. 

 

How is pectinase produced? 

Pectinase is a naturally occurring group of similar enzymes. It is present in the fruits of plants and promotes ripening. The other naturally occurring source of pectinase is microbes such as fungus, bacteria and yeast. For commercial purposes, microbes’ produced pectinase is used because it has lower activity and can be controlled by industries. There are various processes that an industry can use to produce pectinase: – 

Solid-state fermentation 

It is a process where pectinase is produced by promoting the growth on a solid surface in the absence of water. Some industries partially use water in solid-state fermentation.  To extract the pectinase enzyme, a specific amount of buffer and water is added. 

Submerged fermentation

Both solid-state fermentation and submerged fermentation can produce equally effective pectinase enzymes. In this process, industries use liquid broth to culture the organisms. Submerged fermentation releases a colossal amount of effluents.

Now that the enzyme is extracted through the process (submerged or solid-state fermentation), it is essential to purify the extracted enzyme to increase its effectiveness.  There are many ways of purification that industries may use depending on their comfortability with the process. Purification can be completed through filtration, ethanol precipitation, ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, or ion-exchange chromatography.

 

Use of pectinase in the food industry 

The use of pectinase enzymes is widespread. As aforementioned, they are used in various industries, but the most prominent use is in the food industry.  Even in the natural state, pectinase found in fruits speeds up the process of ripening. Pectinase enzyme is one of the best catalysts and has multiple uses in the food industry. 

However, pectinase is not used as a single enzyme in the food industry. Instead, it is combined with amylase, like the alpha-amylase enzyme. This combination is used as a purifying agent. Both the food and wine industries use it in the processing of their products. The most extensive use of pectinase is in the processing of apple juice. After the production, apple juice often turns into a turbid plant matter. Using pectinase degrades the gums and helps in the production of clearer juice. 

Apart from this, pectinase is also used to soften fruits and fermentation of coffee and tea. 

 

If you are searching for eco-friendly enzymatic solutions, look no further than Infinita Biotech. We provide solutions for several industries ranging from Brewery, Starch, Wine, Malt, Wastewater Treatment, and Food to Animal Feed. Our extensive expertise in the industry will help every domain associated with us towards success.

Share this post

0 Comments

Submit a Comment

Your email address will not be published.

PECTIN METHYLESTERASE

This enzyme can be utilised for fruit firming and jelly formation.

De-Methylation

Pectin Degradation

Synergestic Action

JUICE EXTRACTION ENZYMES

This enzymes based formulations is useful for higher juice extraction from grapes and for better filtration and clarification.

Multi Enzymes Complex

Enhances Wine Flavour

Enhances Wine Clarity

Related Articles
Role Of Enzymes In Fruit Juice Extraction For Wine

Role Of Enzymes In Fruit Juice Extraction For Wine

The winemaking process involves the use of many enzymes. This is the most natural way of making an alcoholic beverage. Wine gets its taste because of the breakdown process completed by the enzymes. Broadly, these enzymes used to make wine belong to the Enological...

Alpha Amylase Enzyme an Overview

Alpha Amylase Enzyme an Overview

Alpha Amylase, also written as α-amylase, is a natural enzyme that is used to hydrolyze (a chemical reaction when a molecule breaks into one or more bonds) alpha-linked poly carbohydrates, such as dextrins and starch. This yields shorter chains of glucose  and...